On the 5th anniversary of the outbreak of war in December 2018, British journalist Peter Martell described South Sudan as a nation ”in ruins” and 4.5 million people have been forced from their homes in the past five years, more than half of whom have fled to refugee camps in Sudan or Uganda.  In an interview with Martell in April 2018, Kiir accused the exodus of his own people on ”social networks” and denied reports of atrocities and said it was a ”conspiracy against the government”.  Kiir declared that he would not resign as part of a peace agreement and said, ”What is the initiative to bring peace if it is a peace that I will bring, and then I will step aside?”  On the sidelines of the peace talks in Khartoum, the two countries agreed on a plan to double oil production in the South, but did not give details on how to achieve this. ”Let our leaders see our suffering. As citizens, we have suffered a lot, but with the signing of peace, we will be able to recover all that we have lost,” she said. Two Indian UN peacekeeping forces were killed on December 18, when their base was stormed by rebels, and three U.S. Osprey army planes were bombed, killing four U.S. soldiers.  On 21 January 2014, Ankunda reported that nine Ugandan soldiers had been killed a week earlier in a rebel ambush in Gemeza and that 12 others had been killed since 23 December.  South Sudan`s President Salva Kiir on Wednesday signed a peace agreement with the main rebel leader, Riek Machar, officially ending a five-year war that saw tens of thousands of men take over. ”We will be hopeful if every new agreement leads to real change on the ground,” Buchanan said, ”when we hear South Sudanese civilians say that they feel safe from attacks and rape, free from increasing hunger – driven by persistent conflict – and that they can return to their livelihoods and education without fear.” On 30 April 2020, despite the UN agreement on power-sharing and arms embargo, Amnesty International said South Sudan continued to import arms.  Peter Martell, a journalist and author of a recent book on South Sudan, said there was ”every reason to expect this to collapse like previous agreements,” but that the country is ”often surprising.” The new agreement links elements of an earlier agreement and involves a unilateral ceasefire.
The other major front of the conflict remained the Upper Upper Nile, where government forces fought mainly against john Uliny`s agwelek troops allied with the SPLA-IO. In a study of victims until April 2018, deaths from violence peaked between 2016 and 2017.  In October 2016, the rebels attempted to capture Malakal  and in January 2017 fighting led civilians to leave the country`s second largest city.  During fighting in the Bahr el Ghazal area, the pro-government Mathiang militia attacked Anyoor Wau in April 2017, killing up to 50 civilians.  In the same month, SPLA-IO seized Raja, the capital of Lol state, while the governor of Hassan state claimed that the city had been immediately recaptured.   A government counter-offensive from late April 2017 cancelled most rebel gains, conquered the capital of the kingdom of Shilluk Kodok in Uliny and closed in Pagak, which had been the headquarters of the SPLA-IO since 2014.   In July 2017, SPLA, along with loyal forces, who were loyal to Taban Deng Gai, recaptured the rebel-held town of Maiwut.    The government recaptured Pagak in August 2017, while IO rebels still held territory in the traditional Nuer areas of Panyijar country in Unity State and in rural areas of Jonglei and Akobo state.  SPLA-IO retaliated against Taban Deng Gai`s SPLA-IO force to retake Pagak.  ”An agreement on outstanding issues has been signed and this agreement expresses the commitment of all parties to a ceasefire,” said Sudanese Foreign Minister Al-Dirdiri